Fish farming business and insight

Fish farming business

What is fish farming?

fish farming also known as aquaculture is the process of breeding, raising and harvesting fish commercially either through a controlled environment so as to increase productivity or a semi-controled environment.

How to start fish farming step by step

Fish farming is considered an important agricultural activity that has the potentials  of eradicating nutritional deficiencies in the world and leveraging on the reduction of poverty level in the world, hence it is a great and lucrative business to start in Africa.

This step by step procedures will give you all the basic knowledge you need to know in identifying the best species you can farm and it will also stand as a guide on the various types of feeds to give your fish and how to prepare well your fish pond.

Although starting a small fish farming doesn't require much as you can start with just a fish tank and water supply supply, your fish tank should have a drainage which can be easily rebranded and integrated to your tank for better fish farming management.

However for large scale fish farming the case is quite different as it requires a lot of facilities and materials to enable a healthy fish farming environment.

Since you are dealing with high quality of fisheries you will need to ensure the below facilities are available for your fish farming installment.


Pumps for fish farming are majorly used for pumping water in or outside the fish pond. This pumps are well equipped so that you can have a constant water supply to the pond.

Water testing equipment

Water testing equipments are essential equipments needed for fish farming and  are provided in order to help in testing the waters for a healthy fish environment.


Nets are devices made from fibers woven in a grid-like structure and they help to gather all the fish species together for harvesting.

Fish tanks-ponds

Fish tanks ponds are the basic environment for keep the fishes and are constructed to hold a large amount of fish till when they are ready for harvesting and marketing to a new customer, these tanks are created and built by experts for a sustainable fish farming management.

Aeration equipment

Aeration is the process by which the air is circulated through, combined with or dissolved in a liquid or other substances that act as a fluid for a healthy fish environment.

How to start fish farming

The first thing to consider before you go into fish farming is by navigating a good land area; which may be considered by the size, the soil quality and the source of water.

To get this land you can either buy, rent or use your house land if convenient to start your fish farming.

Below are more emphasies on why land area is a factor to start a fish farming business.


Since you are going into a fish farming you need to select a big land even if you are starting small as long as you are going into fish farming full time, you need to acquire a good size land that is big enough to take accommodate your plans in the future so that you will not be limited to business expansion.

The size is the most important thing to consider before you begin because you might be starting small and might want to expand in the future and instead of reconstructing a new pond or buying a new land you can easily occupy your space.


The soil is another important factor consider because the quality of the soil affects the quantity and quality of the fish directly hence you need an expert to test the soil before you mount a fish pond in any designated area.

 The soil should be atleast 20% clay and ensure the area is not vulnerable to flood and erosion to avoid diets and unhealthy diversion of particles into your pond and environment.


Rearing fish requires constant water supply and as such you can not ignore the water aspect for fish farming.
Some water supply can be stressful and unhealthy and can cause low production which will prevent the fish from growing.

The best source of water for fish farming is the river, streams or lake however due to the cost to channel this type of water supply you can use borehole and the recommended pond size is 0.7 meters deep so you can have a healthy farming.

River fish farming

Step 2: 

Pond Design and Construction

Pond Design and Construction is a vital key to consider while preparing for your fish farming as a pond with good design in a specific area will determine your visibilities.
However there are factors to consider while constructing your pond and the below contents entails these factor which includes:

Inflow and outflow

The water flows both in and out has to be consciously be in the right state because if outflows is too much the favourable algae could have the possibilities of getting flushed out which is a threat to the fish.

However, were the water is retained for quite a long period of time in the pond, it may lead to Oxygen Depletion and that is a downside and hence leads to unhealthy  fish.

As such, it is very important to take note of the water level in the fish pond and frequently observe the water inflow and outflow of the pond is in good position and maintenance.

Good management

During construction, the screens has to be placed in a strategic manner to keep predators like birds and reptiles off, also Cover all the visible inlets and outlets properly to keep inserts away.

Good drainage

a recommended slope for a fish pond is 0.02m for every 10 meters. This will ensure a stable regulation of the inflow and outflow rate.

Shape and size

Just as I mentioned early, Productivity obviously tends to be higher in a shallow pond. Nonetheless, it should not be too shallow. Make sure that the shallow end is approximately 50 cm.(0.5m)

Spaces between the ponds

A pond without spaces Inbetween will could be a threat and the fish can find it very difficult to feed as as difficulty harvesting the fish or make any amendments that might prompt the need of a machine in the pond.

Hence spaces must be left in between to be used as feeder channels and machine roads if need be. The paths should be standard to avoid straining.

Step 3: 

Selecting the Fish Species

The selection of fish species is the most challenging step you will undergo as a newbie while starting your fish farming project because there are various types of fish and species.

Therefore while deciding on the fish farming type to begin, it is wise to do your due diligence to enable you choose wisely.

The reason is that there are too many factors to consider and planned out properly before taking action hence it will greatly affect productivity.

The Fish farming business is quite an expensive business and therefore your conclusion on which type to start with is not one that you want start with in a haste, it requires fundamental facts to enable sustainable and profitable fish farming experience. 

Below are some of the popular types of fish which farmers pick for their farm investment.

1.Tilapia farming

2.Salmon farming

3.Tuna farming

4.Eel farming

5.Catfish farming

Now let's take a deep look on the various kinds of fish species to enable you have a decisive idea on what to farm on.

1.Tilapia farming

Tilapia is a fresh water fish and one of the popular fish farming in Africa. They are known for their fast growth and reproduction which includes high protein, at large and have some incredible growth capabilities.It takes approximately two years to mature sexually.

When it comes to feeding the Tilapia can be easily fed as they feed on phytoplankton, unicellular algae and zooplankton, which refers to small animals or immature large animals.

The versatile fish is lenient of an assortment of aquaculture. Due to the generous rearing parameters, tilapia is an ideal investment for you.

The tilapia fish has different types of fish pond, however the earth ponds is the most best for commercial fish Farming as it increases productivity.

Compared to other fish farming, the tilapia fish farming also demands same conditions and environment as others for better results.

Ensure to check out for availability of consistent water supply, favorable type of soil with ability to hold water and a place that is level.

To get an effective tilapia fish pond, you need an optimal temperature range of about 25 degrees to 35 degrees. Ensure to also check for the place with sufficient sunlight to place your pond. This will enhance growth of algae.

Note: Tilapia increases so fast which may as a result cause over population and in turn cause food competition resulting to stunted growth. This is controlled by use of predators or manual sexing.

Cat fish farming

2.Catfish farming

The catfish comes with easy harvest and the farming requires little effort which is rearable in the pond of any size conveniently If you want fish that you will harvest quickly, then the catfish farming is a great choice of fish farming, with any size of pond it is obtainable and achievable.

Being  one of the most maintainable fish type and has an excessive high demand in market today as majority of fish customers prefer the catfish.

We have so many catfish species starting with the yellow blue to the black blood, brown catfish, walking, channel among others.

The cat fish type of farming, there are  different types of fish ponds, but earth ponds is the most preferred for commercial fish farming.

There are approximately,  over 3000 species and The fish take about 21 months to grow up to 0.454 kg (454 grams) they feed on readily available foods such as rice, soybeans etc, it is a very less stressful fish species compared to others.

For maximum productivity, ensure that

Temperatures in the pond are kept between 28.30C to 300C

The pH of the water in the pond is kept between 6.5 and 8.5

There is usually a Water tests which are carried out to ensure regularly scan for contamination. The health of the fish in the pond has to be consistently observed and the unhealthy ones administered by a specialist.

According to research, it is of no doubt that the catfish are resilient and productive hence a perfect fish farming investment for any new fish farmer.

Fingerlings-Fish farming


You can start your fishpond with some fingerlings from the reputable dealer. It is well known that male fingerlings grows fast compared to females. You are then advised to have more males so that you can get better results.

Tilapia is known to breed very fast and easily. This may lead to overcrowding. We therefore advise you to keep an eye in order to avoid stunt. We recommend five fingerlings in the pond in every metre squared.

Fingerlings normally reach maturity within six and eight months. Ensure that you keep some adult fish in order to produce the fingerlings to ensure that your fish crop is well restocked.

Step 4:

Feeding the Fish

Feeding the fish is the main tool to getting a great return of investment.

 Unlike human beings, fish need to feed well so as to grow healthy and rapidly. This means that purchasing their feeds will increase their productivity. The population of the fish will increase with time and as they grow you increase their feedings to ensure that they do not compete for food.

The tilapia fish mostly feed on algae, manufactured fish feeds or water insects. You can get pellets that are either made of soy, maize, vegetable product and rice.

Providing proper care and feed for your fish will definitely make them gain weight rapidly and grow fast.

You can also garnish the growth of algae in the pond by simply adding some  combination of chicken droppings or fertilizer. They will grow rapidly, which means providing an additional food sources.

Feeding time is best in morning and afternoon. Make sure that you don’t allow any uneaten food to remain in the fish pond for too many hours. This is because it may convert to toxic elements.

When purchasing the supplements, Make Sure that you insist on the species that you rear since there are varieties of supplementary foods for the different species.

Control diseases, parasites and predators

Ensure that the fishpond remains clean and neat always to prevent entry of parasites and diseases. You can consult an expert to guide you through the aquaculture professionalism on the correct medication you can apply when treating a sick fish.


 Fish Harvesting

This is where you eat the fruit of your labour: fish harvesting can be done using either a net or draining away all the water volume in cases where you are harvesting all the fish. Remember to take note of the  different species of food that are harvested at various stages and weight.

To get maximum food and to provide quality fish to your customers, you should make sure that they are harvested in the right way and at the right time.

Step 6:

 Marketing the Fish

If your purpose is to come into fishing farming for marketing then you will have to align yourself with fish traders, restaurant, and food production companies for easier marketing.

In most cases an individual or brand can purchase your fish ahead of harvest (post-marketing) this makes it easier to market your fish and plan for the next farming.

Make sure you understand the commercial trends to avoid falling off the wedge and selling at drop in price due to high availability and low demand.

The world is now aware of nutritional value of the fish. Fish is known to be a good source of vitamin D, omega -3, vitamin B2 and many others.

A lot of people are actually abandoning the red meat to take fish as red meat has a threat to older ages. This is one of the advantages which the fish farming has over other livestocks. 

The fish sector yields so much profits and there are several reasons you should also consider while Planning to go into fish farming due to it's multiple benefits.

The aquaculture industry, which accounts for over 50 percent of global fish production, is the fastest-growing food-producing sector. About 424 aquatic species are cultivated globally, benefiting millions through the provision of nutrition, food security and sustainable livelihood, and poverty reduction (Galappaththi, Aubrac, Ichien, Hyman, & Ford, 2020).

Over the past two decades, world aquaculture has developed tremendously to become an economically significant industry.

Compared to other business, this is a business that you should market. Some of the platforms that you can use are websites, social media platforms such as Facebook and our platform EFarming.Africa(Our Project is currently under maintenance).

Ensure that you advertise yourself and business to people and businesses around you so that they can be aware of what you do. After this, the consumers will come looking for you.

Capital for fish farming

The required amount of money needed to start this business depends mostly on the scale of the project. Starting this business may or may not be too challenging because there are several places where you can source your capital from.

You can source your loan from your local bank or accumulate some funds from investors. It is therefore important to prepare a good business plan so that you can get good funding from the bank or any source of funding.

You can also use your personal savings if you don’t have access to investors or banks afterall it's your business and worth investing in even if it requires you to use your last penny that can lend you money as capital. Start with your small savings and finally your business will grow.

Benefits of fish farming

Fish is greatly nutritious aside numerous the demands of your consumers, you already have a very nutritious meal for your family.

Unemployed individuals who studied aquaculture in school can be given an opportunity to put what they studied in school into practice since the rate at which youths are not getting jobs in most parts of africa after education gives the fish farming an opportunity and job gateway.

Challenges, risks and solutions.

According to the above thoroughly description and intakes of fish farming, it is clear that fish farming goes beyond being known as profit making. As such, it has so many benefits. However, we cannot overlook the challenges and the risks that are involved.

There are no competition from fish fetched from rivers, lakes and oceans. Nonetheless, they are much cheaper that fish grown in a pond.

However there is high capital equired to start compared to rearing other animals like chicken hence you need to Make a good business plan and budget for it properly. This will make sure that you do not stop the project at the middle due to insufficient finances.


The fish farming business is no doubt one of the most lucrative farming business to start with any amount of capital, be it big or small, you can cut your cake according to your sizes, it's not like you must start with a thousand fish on the go, you can start with as little as 10 using smaller tanks, and can grow from a gradual stage to a more professional business stage, this will make you gain confidence in the process and give you more insight on how to begin a larger fish farming business.

I hope you have learnt something meaningful in this article concerning fish farming business, don't forget to drop your comments and share to your love ones. Thanks.

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